Time Lapse (4D)

Reservoir monitoring as fluids are drained out of the reservoir is an extremely important step in efficient drainage of the reservoir.  History matching is commonly used by reservoir engineers for monitoring. Changes in pore pressure and water saturation measured at some specified intervals in wells in the past are used to predict the future performance of the reservoir. The challenge is that reservoir heterogeneity between the wells may not be captured without additional information between the wells.

PPZG offers superior solutions in time lapse that will enhance your exploration efforts and dramatically reduce your drilling and completion costs.

By inverting time lapse seismic data we relate changes in acoustic and elastic attributes to changes in pore pressure and water saturation as the reservoir is drained. Therefore, starting from a static reservoir model we update the dynamic reservoir model through history matching (at well location) and through calibrated inversion (away from the well) giving the reservoir engineer a more accurate reservoir management tool.

Acoustic impedance changes in a producing reservoir

CO2 plume development over ten years on time lapse seismic modeling

Semblance analysis of time-lapse seimic modeling

Simulation of changes in Oil and Gas saturation using time lapse data

The difference in map distribution over time allows easy identification of undrained hydrocarbon sands.